Heavy Smoking Accompanies Postpartum DepressionCigarette smoking should be a tip-off for the possibility of postpartum depression, according to a survey from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. Results of a study suggesting this were presented here at American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 59th Annual Clinical Meeting.
The large survey showed that nearly 1 of every 3 mothers who reported smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day also had symptoms of clinical depression. Depression was more likely among heavier smokers who were younger, who were non-Hispanic black, and who had low levels of education.
Heavy Smoking Tied to Advanced Kidney Cancer
Smoking increases the risk of advanced kidney cancer, researchers report.In a new study, a team from Duke University Medical Center reviewed the cases of 845 patients who had surgery for kidney cancer — or renal cell carcinoma — between 2000 and 2009. They found that current and former smokers were 1.5 to 1.6 times more likely to have advanced cancer than nonsmokers.
Heavy smoking (smoking for a longer period of time and smoking more) was associated with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Kicking the habit reduced the risk of advanced disease by 9% for every 10 years that a former smoker was smoke-free, the investigators found.
Heavy smoking or light smoking – is there a difference?
Although the percentage of smokers in the United States has declined during the past thirty years, the proportion of heavy smokers has increased. (Heavy smoking is usually defined as using twenty-five cigarettes or more a day.)
Other risks associated with smoking?
ATLANTA (CNN) — before Dr. Luther L. Terry, then the Surgeon General of the United States, issued his office’s first “Report on Smoking and Health” more than 30 years ago, thousands of articles had already been written on the effects of tobacco use on the human body.
So what are the risks? Here’s what tobacco’s critics say:
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says cigarette smoking is responsible for 151,322 cancer deaths annually in the United States. Most of those — 116,920 — are from lung cancer. The CDC says men who smoke are 22 times more likely to die from lung cancer than non-smokers. Women who smoke are 12 times more likely to die from the disease.
Smoking Related Cancers:
Adult Acute Leukemia
Adult Chronic Leukemia
Or pharyngeal Cancer
Smoking also has been linked time and again to cardiovascular diseases. Among these, the biggest killer is heart disease: according to the CDC, smoking triples the risk of dying from heart disease among middle-aged men and women.
Studies also show an increased risk of death from stroke, aneurysms, high blood pressure, and other cardiovascular illnesses.
Smoking is cited as a risk for dying of pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. The CDC says people who smoke increase their risk of death from bronchitis and emphysema by nearly 10 times.
A report recently published in the American Journal of Epidemiology suggested that smoking increased the risk of developing non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) by more than three times.
Studies have pointed to smoking as a risk in vision loss among older people, mental impairment later in life, Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.
EFFECT ON PREGNANCY
Pregnant women who smoke can pass nicotine and carbon monoxide to their baby through the placenta. Research indicates this can prevent the baby from getting the oxygen and nutrients it needs to grow — potentially leading to fetal injury, premature birth, or low birth weight. According to the American Lung Association, smoking during pregnancy accounts for an estimated 20 to 30 percent of low birth weight babies, up to 14 percent of premature deliveries, and about 10 percent of all infant deaths.
A mother who smokes can also pass nicotine to her baby through her breast milk.SECONDHAND SMOKE
The studies didn’t just point to the ill effects of smoking on those who smoke — non-smokers, too, are apparently affected by the smoke from their friends, family members and strangers who light up in their presence.
Smoking is a greater cause of death and disability that any single disease, says the World Health Organisation.According to their figures, it is responsible for approximately 3.5 million deaths worldwide every year – or about 7% of all deaths. Tobacco smoking is a known or probable cause of approximately 25 diseases, and even the WHO says that its impact on world health is not fully assessed.
Heart attack and stroke
UK studies show that smokers in their 30s and 40s are five times more likely to have a heart attack than non-smokers. Tobacco contributes to the hardening of the arteries, which can then become blocked and starve the heart of blood flow, causing the attack. Often, smokers who develop this will require complex and risky heart bypass surgery. If you smoke for a lifetime, there is a 50% chance that your eventual death will be smoking-related – half of all these deaths will be in middle age. Smoking also increases the risk of having a stroke.
Another primary health risk associated with smoking is lung cancer, which kills more than 20,000 people in the UK every year. US studies have shown that men who smoke increase their chances of dying from the disease by more than 22 times. Women who smoke increase this risk by nearly 12 times. Lung cancer is a difficult cancer to treat – long term survival rates are poor. Smoking also increases the risk of oral, uterine, liver, kidney, bladder, stomach, and cervical cancers, and leukemia. Another health problem associated with tobacco is emphysema, which, when combined with chronic bronchitis, produces chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lung damage which causes emphysema is irreversible, and makes it extremely difficult to breathe.
Harm to children
Smoking in pregnancy greatly increases the risk of miscarriage, is associated with lower birth weight babies, and inhibited child development. Smoking by parents following the birth is linked to sudden infant death syndrome, or cot death, and higher rates of infant respirat
By 2020, the WHO expects the worldwide death toll to reach 10 million, causing 17.7% of all deaths in developed countries. There are believed to be 1.1 billion smokers in the world, 800,000 of
Questions Answered AboutSmoking & Your Health
1. Is there a safe way to smoke?
No. All cigarettes can cause damage to the human body and even a small amount is dangerous. Cigarettes are perhaps the only legal product whose advertised and intended use is harmful to the body and is a proven cause of cancer.
2. Is cigarette smoking really addictive?
Yes. The nicotine in cigarette smoke is what causes an addiction to smoking. First, when taken in small amounts, nicotine produces pleasurable feelings that make the smoker want to smoke more. Second, smokers usually become dependent on nicotine and suffer both physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms when they stop smoking. These symptoms include nervousness, headaches, irritability, and difficulty in sleeping. Third, because nicotine affects the chemistry of the brain and central nervous system, it can affect the mood and temperament of the smoker.
3. Who is most likely to become addicted?
Anyone who starts smoking is at risk of becoming addicted to nicotine. Studies show that among addictive behaviors such as the use of alcohol and other drugs, cigarette smoking is most likely to become an established habit during adolescence.
4. What does nicotine do?
Nicotine is a poison and taken in large doses could kill a person by paralyzing breathing muscles. Smokers usually take it in small amounts that the body can quickly break down and get rid of, which is why the nicotine does not kill instantly.
5. Does smoking cause cancer?
Yes. Tobacco smoke contains at least 43 carcinogenic (cancer-causing) substances. Smoking causes many kinds of cancer, not just lung cancer.
6. How does cigarette smoke affect the lungs?
Cigarette smoking causes several lung diseases that can be just as dangerous as lung cancer. Chronic bronchitis – a disease where the airways produce excess mucus, which forces the smoker to cough frequently – is a common ailment for smokers. Cigarette smoking is also the major cause of emphysema – a disease that slowly destroys a person’s ability to breathe.
7. What in cigarette smoke is harmful?
Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds generated by the combustion (burning) of tobacco and additives. Cigarette smoke contains tar, which is made up of over 4,000 chemicals, including the 43 known to cause cancer. Some of these substances cause heart and respiratory diseases, all of which are disabling and can cause death.
8. Does cigarette smoking affect the heart?
Yes. Smoking cigarettes increases the risk of heart disease, which is America’s number one killer. Almost 180,000 Americans die each year from cardiovascular disease caused by smoking. Smoking, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and lack of exercise are all risk factors for heart disease, but smoking alone doubles the risk
9. How does smoking affect pregnant women and their babies?
Pregnant women who smoke endanger the health and lives of their unborn babies.
10. Is smoking common among young people?
Yes. Tobacco use, including smoking cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and dipping snuff, remains common among American youth.
11. What are the chances that smoking will kill you?
About four million people die worldwide each year as a result of smoking.
12. How many people smoke cigarettes?
In 1998, the latest year for which figures are available, 24.1% of adults –about 48 million people-smoked cigarettes. Approximately 26% of men and 22% of women reported being smokers in 1998, reflecting a continuing decline in the percentage of Americans who smoke.
13. Why do people begin to smoke?
Most people begin smoking between the ages of 10 and 18. Peer pressure and curiosity are the major influences that encourage them to experiment with smoking. Also, people with parents who smoke are more likely to begin smoking than those who have nonsmoking parents.
14. Can quitting really help a lifelong smoker?
Yes. It is never too late to quit. The sooner smokers quit, the more they can reduce their chances of getting cancer and other diseases. Within 20 minutes of smoking the last cigarette, the body begins a series of regenerating changes. After 20 minutes, blood pressure drops to normal. After 8 hours, the carbon monoxide level in the blood drops to normal. After 24 hours, the chance of heart attack decreases. After one year, the risk of coronary heart disease is half that of a smoker.
15. If you smoke but don’t inhale, is there any danger?
Yes. Wherever smoke touches living cells, it does harm.
16. Suppose I smoke for a while and then quit?
Smoking begins to cause damage right away and is highly addictive. Several studies have found nicotine to be as addictive as heroin, cocaine, or alcohol; it is the most common form of drug addiction in the United States. Therefore, it is obviously better never to start smoking cigarettes and become addicted to nicotine than it is to smoke with the intention of quitting later. And like alcohol, heroin, and cocaine, nicotine creates a permanent tolerance in the body. When an ex-smoker smokes a cigarette, even years after quitting, and the nicotine reaction may be triggered, quickly hooking the person on the old habit.
17. How do people successfully quit?
There is no one right way to quit. Successful cessation may include one or a combination of methods including using step-by-step manuals, attending self- help classes or counseling, or using a nicotine replacement therapy (nicotine patch or nicotine gum).