DISEASES

DISEASES
Diseases and conditions of the penis (Disorders of the Penis)
The penis is one of the external structures of the male reproductive system. The penis has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans penis, which is the cone-shaped end (head). The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the glans penis.
The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three internal chambers. These chambers are made up of special, sponge-like erectile tissue.
This tissue contains thousands of large caverns that fill with blood when the man is sexually aroused. As the penis fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sexual intercourse. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodate changes in penis size during an erection.
Semen, which contains sperm (the male reproductive cells), is expelled through the end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). Disorders of the penis can affect a man’s sexual functioning and fertility.
Penis Spots, Lumps and Rashes
When spots, lumps or rashes appear on the penis men often fear they have a sexually transmitted disease.
Treatment Prognosis for Peyronie’s Disease
Peyronie’s disease is a condition where the penis bends, usually upwards or downwards and is most apparent during an erection. This condition can be painful. Find out treatment options and therapy available for Peyronie’s disease.
Priapism
The medical condition Priapism gets its name from the Greek God of fertility Priapus. Priapism however, refers to a condition where men experience a sustained and painful erection for a number of hours. The condition often occurs without sexual arousal and if not treated can lead to permanent damage.
Common causes of priapism include:
• Alcohol or drug abuse (especially cocaine)
• Certain medications, including some antidepressants and blood pressure medications
• Spinal cord problems
• Injury to the genitals
• Anesthesia
• Penile injection therapy (a treatment for erectile dysfunction)
• Blood diseases, including leukemia and sickle cell anemia
Phimosis and Paraphimosis
Phimosis, or preputial stenosis, is a term that usually means any condition where the foreskin of the penis cannot be retracted.
Peyronie’s Disease
Curvature of the penis may occur for a variety of reasons. When hardening of the tissue is accompanied by pain the condition is likely to be diagnosed as Peyronies disease.
Balanitis
Men over the age of 40 are most prone to balanitis, a rare but harmless skin disease affecting the penis
Cancer of the Penis
Cancer of the penis is a malignant growth of cells in the tissue and/or external area of the penis. It is a very rare but aggressive form of cancer that has a tendency to spread.
Signs of cancer and treatment options are considered.
Hypospadias
Around 1 in every 100 male child births results in hypospadias a male birth defect where the opening of the urethra is not located at the tip of the penis but opens part way up.
Jock itch
Jock itch occurs as a result of fungal infection of the groin area.
Male Urinary Incontinence
The causes of male urinary incontinence may be many and varied. We review the causes the treatments and the options available to make life a bit more comfortable.
Testicular Cancer
Every year too many men die from a cancer that responds very well to treatment. Despite the number of deaths, testicular cancer is not very common. Even so, it’s important to know the signs, symptoms and treatment options.
Spots on the penis
In this article, we’ll describe many different types of spots that you might notice on your penis.
A few of them are due to serious conditions. But please bear in mind that MOST spots that you might find on your penis are likely to be completely harmless.
Men are understandably concerned if they notice spots on their penis. They are frequently worried they may have a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or some form of cancer. In fact, spots aren’t often a sign of sexual infection, and they are almost never a sign of cancer.
Males also get alarmed about the physical appearance of a ‘spotty’ penis and what their sexual partner or partners might think of it.
Are they common?
Spots on the penis are very common and most do not have a serious cause. However, occ asion
ally spots can indicate a significant health problem. So, it’s important to seek prompt medical advice if you’re concerned.
What should I do?
We suggest that a good place to seek advice about spots on the penis is your GP’s surgery.
Types of spots
Spots on the penis can be divided into groups according to their appearance.
• Ulcers: are not common. They are little craters in the skin. There’s frequently a crust, or perhaps clear liquid (serum) or pus in the crater.
• Papules: are small (less than 1cm diameter) lumps, raised above the skin surface.
• Plaques: are raised, flat-topped lesions, greater than 1cm in diameter.

Other causes may include:
• Dermatitis/allergy — Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin, often caused by an irritating substance or a contact allergy. Sensitivity to chemicals in certain products—such as soaps, detergents, perfumes and spermicidal—can cause an allergic reaction, including irritation, itching and a rash.
• Infection — Infection with the yeast candida albicans (thrush) can result in an itchy, spotty rash. Certain sexually transmitted diseases—including gonorrhea, herpes and syphilis—can produce symptoms of balanitis.

In addition, men with diabetes are at greater risk for balanitis. Glucose (sugar) in the urine that is trapped under the foreskin serves as a breeding ground for bacteria.
Persistent inflammation of the penis head and foreskin can result in scarring, which can cause a tightening of the foreskin (phimosis) and a narrowing of the urethra (tube that drains urine from the bladder). Inflammation also can lead to swelling of the foreskin, which can cause injury to the penis.
Taking appropriate hygiene measures can help prevent future bouts of balanitis. In addition, it is important to avoid strong soaps or chemicals, especially those known to cause a skin reaction.
Penile cancer
A rare form of cancer, penile cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the penis divide and grow uncontrolled. Certain benign (non-cancerous) tumors may progress and become cancer.
The exact cause of penile cancer is not known, but there are certain risk factors for the disease. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of getting a disease. The risk factors for cancer of the penis may include the following:
• Circumcision—Men who are not circumcised at birth have a higher risk for getting cancer of the penis.
• Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection—HPVs are a group of more than 70 types of viruses that can cause warts (papillomas). Certain types of HPVs can infect the reproductive organs and the anal area. These types of HPVs are passed from one person to another during sexual contact.
• Smoking—Smoking exposes the body to many cancer-causing chemicals that affect more than the lungs.
• Smegma—Oily secretions from the skin can accumulate under the foreskin of the penis. The result is a thick, bad-smelling substance called smegma. If the penis is not cleaned thoroughly, the presence of smegma can cause irritation and inflammation.
• Phimosis—This is a condition in which the foreskin becomes constricted and difficult to retract.

• Treatment for psoriasis—the skin disease psoriasis is sometimes treated with a combination of medication and exposure to ultraviolet light.
• Age—most cases of penile cancer occur in men over age 50.
Symptoms of penile cancer include growths or sores on the penis, abnormal discharge from the penis and bleeding. Surgery to remove the cancer is
the most common treatment for penile cancer. A doctor may take out the cancer using one of the following operations:
• Wide local excision takes out only the cancer and some normal tissue on either side.
• Microsurgery is an operation that removes the cancer and as little normal tissue as possible. During this surgery, the doctor uses a microscope to look at the cancerous area to make sure all the cancer cells are removed.
• Laser surgery uses a narrow beam of light to remove cancer cells.
• Circumcision is an operation that removes the foreskin.
• Amputation of the penis (penectomy) is an operation that removes the penis.
It is the most common and most effective treatment of cancer of the penis. In a partial penectomy, part of the penis is removed. In a total penectomy, the whole penis is removed. Lymph nodes in the groin may be taken out during surgery.
Radiation, which uses high-energy rays to attack cancer, and chemotherapy, which uses drugs to kill cancer, is other treatment options.